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Middle East Environmental Law


Yemen

Yemen mapLocated on the Arabian Peninsula and bordering on the Gulf of Aden and the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, a critical shipping route for oil,[i] the Republic of Yemen (ROY) is a strategically important country that has been struggling to prevent uprisings in the north and south from sending it into civil war. Prior to the current civil unrest that began in 2011, there were conflicts in the north with al-Houthi uprising, in the south with Southern Secessionist factions, and with violent extremist organizations, such as Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), in various governorates.

The most recent civil unrest began in 2011 with peaceful protests. The protests continued and violence erupted. The protests eventually resulted in former President Ali Abdullah Saleh agreeing to step down and for new elections to be held in February 2012[ii] resulting in the election of President Abed Rubbuh Mansour Al-Hadi. However, protests and violence continue within Yemen and it remains to be seen what lasting impact these protests will have on the government of Yemen and how it functions.[iii]  

Yemen is noted for its beauty, diverse geography, significant biodiversity, rich tribal traditions, famous archaeological sites, and an elected government unique in the region. However, Yemen faces significant political, security, economic, and environmental issues.  Oil reserves in Yemen are dwindling, piracy threatens the fishing and hydrocarbon industries offshore, water resources are quickly being depleted, while population growth, refugees, and internally displaced persons are straining natural and economic resources. Intermittent tribal conflicts and the presence of violent extremist organizations further undermine Yemen's long-term stability and its environmental well-being.

Government

The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (southern Yemen) and The Yemen Arab Republic (northern Yemen) were unified in 1990 and adopted a new constitution in 1991[iv] former President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the leader of the Yemen Arab Republic (northern Yemen) in 1978 and continued his role as president after the unification of northern and southern Yemen and formation of the Republic of Yemen.[v] Tensions between the north and south grew after the unification, southern leaders seceded in 1994 and civil war broke out. The war was short-lived, ending in 1994.

The ROY has been unable to extend positive control beyond major cities and unrest continued in areas of the country, ranging from tribal feuds to rebellions in the north and a secessionist movement in the south. These conflicts have stretched the resources of the government of the Republic of Yemen (ROY) and negatively impacted the ability to effectively manage natural resources and economic growth.

Political Structure

Yemen is a republic and it is broken down into governorates and districts. Yemen has an elected president and a bicameral legislature comprised of a Shura Council, consisting of 111 seats, whose members are appointed by the president and a House of Representatives (Majlis al-Nuwwab), consisting of 301 seats, whose members are elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms.[vi] All Yemeni citizens over 18 are eligible to vote. The official language of Yemen is Arabic.

The President is the head of state and the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, he appoints the vice president, the prime minister (the head of the government),[vii] deputy prime ministers, and the prime minister selects the council of ministers in consultation with the president. The President may dissolve the parliament.[viii] The President appoints the consultative council and names the members of the National Defense Council, which the President heads. Despite legal provisions limiting presidential authority, President Saleh held tremendous sway over all facets of the Central Government. President Saleh was adroit at dealing with the different political and tribal factions within Yemen during his long reign as president and many have cited this skill as enabling him to retain control throughout the decades. 

The Judiciary[ix] 

Yemen's constitution states that Islam is the source of all legislation.[x] The State religion is Islam. Yemen's population is primarily Muslim, approximately 30% Shi'a (Zaydi sect) and 70% Sunni (Shaafi school).[xi] Jews, Christians, and Hindus are also present in small numbers.

The judiciary is supposedly independent. However, it is managed by an Executive Council, The Supreme Judicial Council. Judges are appointed and can be removed by the Executive Branch.[xii]

There are six (6) types of courts: Criminal, civil, personal status, special cases (kidnapping, carjacking, and sabotage), commercial, and court-martial. In addition there are courts of limited jurisdiction: Juvenile and Public Funds Court.

There are three tiers to the judicial system:

·       Courts of First Instance: General jurisdiction, broad authority to hear many types of cases.

·       Courts of Appeal: 1 in each governorate and one in Sana'a. Each has a separate division for criminal, civil, military, and family.

·       Supreme Court: Decides jurisdictional disputes between courts, cases against high government officials, determines the constitutionality of laws and regulations, and is the final court of appeal.

Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms are highly developed in Yemen. Outside of large cities, Yemenis often look to tribal sheikhs to resolve disputes using tribal law ('urf). The system of tribal adjudication ostensibly deals mainly with non-criminal issues. However, in practice criminal issues are dealt with as well.

Tribes

Yemen has a very strong tribal culture and tribal influence is felt in all aspects of politics, economics and security.[xiii] Although tribes are present throughout Yemen, tribal influence in the north is much stronger. The two largest tribal confederations in Yemen are the Bakil and Hashid confederations. In the south, tribal confederations are not as strong as in the north. The south was a British Protectorate until 1967. After the withdrawal of the British, the south it became the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY).[xiv] The PDRY was more secular and was referred to as a Marxist country. This further diminished the influence of the tribes.

The effective protection of Yemen's unique environmental resources will require public awareness, popular support, adequate financial resources, political will, preservation efforts, effective enforcement procedures, and monitoring capabilities. However, due to the limitations on the ability of the Government to effectively operate outside major areas, these efforts in and of themselves may be inadequate. Working with tribal entities to raise awareness, enforce legislation, promote good agricultural practices and conservation efforts may be key to long-term success throughout Yemen.

Environment

The Yemen Constitution states that all natural resources belong to the state and that the state will use scientific planning in developing the economy to ensure the best use of those resources.[xv] The constitution further states that environmental protection is the collective responsibility of the state and community and individuals have a religious and national duty to protect the environment.[xvi]

Yemen faces many environmental challenges, including, water depletion and poor management of freshwater, habitat degradation and destruction, soil erosion and desertification, poor agricultural practices, poor forestry management practices, overgrazing and overhunting, overfishing, salinization, sand dune establishment, construction, pesticide use, and waste management issues.[xvii]

The Government has acknowledged that environmental issues are critical.[xviii]  Yemen established the Environmental Protection Council (EPC) in 1990. It is a supervisory body that coordinates on environmental issues with relevant agencies, and has responsibility for designing legislation, policies, standards, and promoting environmental awareness.[xix] The EPC also prepares reports on the state of Yemen's environment and conducts environmental studies, including on marine pollution, solid waste, documentation of traditional practices, and climate change.

Natural Resources

Yemen's natural resources include petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; and fertile soil in the western part of the country. [xx]

Climate

Yemen is in an arid/semi-arid part of the world and is mostly desert, with climates ranging from hot and humid on the west coast, to temperate in the western mountains, and very hot and dry in the east.[xxi]

Geography

Yemen is bordered to the north by Saudi Arabia, to the east by Oman, to the west by the Arabian Sea and the Bab el-Mandeb Strait, and to the south by the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea.  Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia lie across the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden from Yemen.

Yemen can be broken down geographically into five (5) types of areas [xxii]

·       Hot and humid coastal plain

·       Temperate Highlands

·       High Plateaus (Hadramawt and Mahra Uplands)

·       Desert interior

·       Islands

 

Water

Water is a critical issue in Yemen, especially in the capital, Sana'a, where water could be depleted within the next couple of decades. Although parts of Yemen receive significant rainfall in comparison to their neighbors, most of Yemen is desert. Poor water management practices, the cultivation of water intensive crops, and significant population growth have placed a tremendous strain on this vital resource.[xxiii] Due to limited freshwater resources and dwindling supplies many damns and catchments have been built throughout Yemen. [xxiv]

The agencies involved in water oversight include, the Ministries of Electricity and Water, Agriculture and Irrigation, the National Authority for Water and Sanitation, the Public Authority for Rural Water and Electrification and the Water Resources Public Authority. However, it should be noted that there are both public and private concerns involved in water projects throughout Yemen.[xxv]

Agriculture[xxvi] 

The majority of Yemen's population is rural and is involved in agriculture. [xxvii] Agriculture employs approximately 58% of the labor force and accounts for 17% of GDP.  Yet, arable land is estimated at only 2.91%.[xxviii] Yemen agriculture was traditionally based upon terraced farming methods. Within Yemen there has been a shift away from traditional farming methods that optimized the use of rainwater and water usage, as well as a change in the types of crops that are cultivated by Yemenis. 

 

There are three major agricultural regions

·       The Coastal region

o   Hodieda, Lahj, Abyan, Al Mahra, Aden and part of Hadhramout governorates

·       The Highlands region

o   Sana'a, Hajja, Al Mahwit, Sa'ada, Dhamar, Ibb, Taiz, Al Biedha, Abyan and Al Dala'a governroates or parts thereof

·       The Eastern Plateau Coatal Region

o   Mareb, Al Jawf, Hadhramout (the interior) and Shabwa governorates or parts thereof

Qat[xxix]

 

Qat is a popular plant grown in Yemen. It is a stimulant and over 70% of men and 30% of women regularly chew its leaves. Men chew it in the afternoon as they socialize during the customary qat sessions that can last for hours. Aside from the very strong social aspect of qat, it is a source of significant income to those who grow and sell qat as Yemenis spend a significant amount of money on qat. Qat is also exported to other countries. Qat is a water intensive crop and has placed a significant strain on Yemen's water resources. Land formerly used for more traditional crops, such as coffee, has also been repurposed to grow qat. The imposition of restrictions on qat chewing has been tried several times, but has failed.[xxx] Currently qat is legal and taxable in Yemen.

Marine resources[xxxi] 

Yemen's marine resources are vital to its economic and food security. The number of traditional fishermen in Yemen is estimated at 40,000 with over 10,000 motorized boats in operation. Approximately 127,000 tons of marine resources are fished per year. Fish is the second largest export after oil. Overfishing is a significant problem and piracy has a tremendous negative impact on the ability of Yemeni fishermen to safely pursue fishing.

Hydrocarbons

Yemen is heavily dependent on hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons account for approximately 25% of GDP and 70% of government revenue.[xxxii]  Yemen is generally assessed as having diminishing supplies of hydrocarbons.[xxxiii]  Yemen does not have the vast proven reserves of hydrocarbon resources that its neighbors are noted for. Yemen has turned to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a means of increasing revenues from this sector.[xxxiv]

Foreign petrochemical companies are present in Yemen and contracts with foreign companies to develop this sector require parliamentary approval.[xxxv] Offshore exploration has been hindered by the escalating threat of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the Horn of Africa. Pipelines and production facilities are frequently the target of attacks.

Population Growth

Yemen has seen tremendous population growth over the past several decades, almost doubling since the 1970's, with a population of approximately 20 million people in 2004.[xxxvi] This rapid population expansion and continued growth will continue to strain Yemen's natural resources.

Biodiversity

Yemen is diverse, with coastal lowlands, mountains, wetlands, islands, and volcanoes.[xxxvii]

Areas identified by the government for protection include:[xxxviii]

·       Socotra (Soqotra) Archipelago[xxxix]

o   The islands lie in the Indian Ocean.

o   Listed on UNESCO's World Heritage List, Socotra is a unique group of four main islands lying in the Indian Ocean near the Gulf of Aden.

o   The islands are home to many distinctive flora and fauna, including the frankincense tree, Dragon's Blood Tree, and the Socotra cucumber. UNESCO states that 37% of the plant species, 90% of the reptiles, and 95% of its land snails are unique to the Archipelago. Marine resources around the islands are also very unique.

o   The Council of Ministers approved plan in 2000 that divides the islands up into zones designated for preservation, development, and conservation as well as management of ecotourism. However, UNESCO has identified a need to strengthen these protections and monitoring capabilities

·       Aden wetlands[xl]

o   Located in the Aden Governorate, the wetlands are an important habitat for migrating water birds as they migrate to and from Europe, Africa, and Asia and hosts very diverse marine life[xli]

·       Ottma(h) National Park (Dhamar governorate)

·       Jabal Bura'a

·       Hugaira Qubayta

·       Jabal Iraf

·       Al-Mahara (Hawf area)

·       Mounabih area

·       Tihama mangroves

·       Ras Sharma Protected Area

o   This area is an important nesting site for turtles[xlii]

Yemen Environmental Plans and Strategies 

·       Republic of Yemen Environmental Protection Authority National Adaptation Programme of Action

·       Yemen's strategies/plans for the future in relation to environmental concerns

·       National Action Plan to Combat Desertification, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, ROY (Draft, 2000)

·       Sustainable Natural Resources Management Project, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), in conjunction with the Yemen Environmental Protection Authority[xliii]

·       National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Ministry of Water and Environment[xliv]

·       Decentralization plan to give local authorities more power[xlv]

·       National Action Plan for the Environment (NAPE) that identifies environmental priorities and recommendations for action[xlvi]

o   Priorities under NAPE include[xlvii]

§  Strengthening water management

§  Curbing soil degradation

§  Sanctuaries

§  Regulating waste management

§  Sub-plan for combating desertification in coordination with the Ministry of Agriculture

o   NAPE has seven (7) subprograms[xlviii]

§  Coordinating support for environmental management (EPC);

§  Information and advice on use of soil resources (Ministry of Agriculture);

§  Planning for combating desertification (Ministry of Agriculture);

§  Community participation in the planning and management of soil resources (Ministry of Agriculture);

§  Establishment of environmental tourism management (EPC and relevant agencies);

§  Preparation of a strategy and an action plan on biodiversity (EPC and relevant agencies);

§  Biodiversity conservation on the Island of Socotra (EPC and relevant agencies).

·       Draft strategy and national action plan on biodiversity [xlix]

·       The plan deals with "safeguarding the protection, conservation and proper utilization of biodiversity...surveying and classification of species...which exist in Yemen."[l]

·       Establishment of a Natural History Museum and biodiversity data bank in order to further the goals of the plan[li]

 

National Legislation

·       The Constitution, Articles 8, 9, and 35

·       The Environmental Protection Law No. 26 of 1995 

·       Fisheries Law No. 20 of 1978

·       Mine & Quarries Law No. 24 of 2002

·       Republican Resolution (RR) No. 42 of 1991, as amended (regulates the fishing industry)

·       Council of Ministers Decree No.299 of 2002

·       Law No. 17 of 2004 Regulating & Protecting Animal Wealth

·       PD No. 275 of 2006 Regulation controlling the usage of materials that damages the ozone layer 

International Conventions

·       The International Convention on Biodiversity

·       Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity

·       The International Convention for the Conservation of Endangered Wild Animals and Plants

·       The International Convention on Combating Desertification

·       Basel Convention on Monitoring and Disposal of Hazardous Wastes

·       Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer

·       The London-Copenhagen Amendment

·       The "Montreal" Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer

·       Regional Convention for the Conservation of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

·       The Framework Pact on Climatic Change

·       Protocol Concerning Regional Co-operation in Combating Pollution by Oil and Other Harmful Substances in Cases of Emergency

·       Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

·       International Plant Protection Convention[lii]

·       International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture

·       Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

·       Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

Environmental NGOs[liii] 

 

·       Yemeni Society for Environmental Conservation

·       AL Nahl Association for Environment Conservation

·       Association for the Protection of Archaeology and Coastlines

·       Association for the Protection of Birds

·       Yemen Ornithological Society

 

Sources

Aden Wetlands Conservation Project, Wings Over Wetlands, Prepared by, Bawazir, Gamal M. July 2009

Yemen, Central Intelligence Agency World Factbook

Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International

Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Department of Energy, updated 2010

Country Report Yemen, Economist intelligence Unit, December 2008

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United States

Foreign Affairs, Council on Foreign Relations

Global Legal Information Network

Global Volcanism Studies, Yemen

Integrating Biodiversity into National Environmental Assessment Processes: Results of National Status Reports and Case Studies, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), workshop summary.

International Labor Organization 

International Monitoring, Control, and Surveillance Network for Fisheries-Related Activities (IMCSNET)

The Jamestown Foundation

National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA), Republic of Yemen Environmental Protection Authority

National Plan To Combat Desertification, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Draft 2000

Ras Sharma Area Remains Unprotected, Wildlife Middle East News, Volume 3, Issue 2, September 2008 

The "Rational Peasant" vs Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Qat in Yemen, Lenard Milich and Mohammed Al-Sabbry

The Republic of Yemen, Comprehensive Development Review, Environment, Rural Development, Reuters News

Water and Environment Department, Middle East and North Africa region, The World Bank, 2000.

Republic of Yemen Constitution, as amended 2001

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Socotra Archipelago

United Nations High Commission for refugees (UNHCR)

Yemen Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation Website

Yemen Observer

 


[i] According to a 2010 report 3.7 billion barrels of oil pass through this strait a day. Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Department of Energy (USA), Energy Information Administration, Updated 2010.

[ii] Pres. Saleh agreed to step down in the fall of 2011. The Vice President is acting as the interim president. New elections have yet to be held.

[iii] Yemen army kills two at anti-election protest, Reuters February 9, 2012, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/09/us-yemen-protest-idUSTRE81822I20120209

[iv] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[v] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[vi] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, Natural Resources, Yemen, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2111.html; Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[vii] See, Article 119(4) states that the President has the responsibility to name the person who will form the government, and to issue a republican decree with the names of the cabinet members.

[viii] New elections must be held within sixty days of said dissolution

[ix] http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf

[x] Republic of Yemen Constitution Articles 2 and 3 (as amended 2001).

[xi] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[xii] P. 19 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Yemen.pdf

[xiii] The Tribes of Yemen: An Asset or Impediment to Stability? Michael Horton, Part One, Terrorism Monitor Volume: 9 Issue: 1, January 6, 2011 The Jamestown Foundation, http://www.jamestown.org/single/?no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=37330; Yemen's Tribal Showdown, Saleh's Last Ditch Attempt to Hold Onto Power, Charles Schmitz, ; Foreign Affairs, June 3, 2011 http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67877/charles-schmitz/yemens-tribal-showdown?page=show

[xiv] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[xv] Yemen Constitution, Articles 8 and 9, as amended 2001. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,LEGAL,,LEGISLATION,YEM,,3fc4c1e94,0.html

[xvi] Yemen Constitution as amended 2001, Article 35. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,LEGAL,,LEGISLATION,YEM,,3fc4c1e94,0.html

[xvii] National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Republic of Yemen, Ministry of Water and Environment, Environment Protection Authority, Abdul Hakim Aulaiahhttp://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/nbsapcbw-mena-01/nbsapcbw-mena-01-ye-01-en.pdf; YEMEN: Alarm bells over water, Yemen Observer, Aug 26, 2008, http://www.yobserver.com/environment/10014833.html; UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME / UNITED NATIONS

DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Summary of International Workshop at Lechwe Lodge, Zambia, April 30 - May 4, 2001 Integrating Biodiversity into National Environmental Assessment Processes: Results of National Status Reports and Case Studies, http://www.unep.org/bpsp/EIA/Workshop%20Summary.pdf

[xviii] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xix] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xx] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, Natural Resources, Yemen, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2111.html

[xxi] Climate Zone, Yemen, http://www.climate-zone.com/climate/yemen/; http://geography.about.com/library/cia/blcyemen.htm

[xxii] Republic of Yemen Environmental Protection Authority National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/napa/yem01.pdf

[xxiii] See, The "Rational Peasant" vs Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Qat in Yemen Lenard Milich and Mohammed Al-Sabbry, http://www.ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/yemen.html

[xxiv] MPIC Sector Background Info, Agriculture and Food Security, MPIC, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=67

[xxv] MPIC Sector Background Info, Electricity and Water, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=76

[xxvi] MPIC Sector Background Info, Agriculture and Food Security, MPIC, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=67

[xxvii] MPIC Sector Background Info, Agriculture and Food Security, MPIC, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=67

[xxviii] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) World Factbook, Yemen, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ym.html

[xxix] The "Rational Peasant" vs Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Qat in Yemen Lenard Milich and Mohammed Al-Sabbry, http://www.ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/yemen.html; Global Security, Military, Qat, http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/yemen/qat.htm

[xxx] The "Rational Peasant" vs Sustainable Livelihoods: The Case of Qat in Yemen Lenard Milich and Mohammed Al-Sabbry, http://www.ag.arizona.edu/~lmilich/yemen.html

[xxxi] MPIC Sector Background Info, Fisheries, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xxxii] Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Department of Energy (USA), Energy Information Administration, Updated 2010.

[xxxiii] According to a 2008 Economist Intelligence Unit Report, proven oil reserves will be depleted in 10-15 years. Country Report Yemen, Economist intelligence Unit, December 2008. The Economist Intelligence Unit, 26 Red Lion Square, London, www.eiu.co; Department of Energy (USA), Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Updated 2010.

[xxxiv]  Country Report Yemen, Economist intelligence Unit, December 2008. The Economist Intelligence Unit, 26 Red Lion Square, London, www.eiu.co; Department of Energy (USA), Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Updated 2010.

[xxxv] Country Analysis Briefs: Yemen, Department of Energy (USA), Energy Information Administration, Updated 2010.

[xxxvi] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[xxxvii] The last eruption was in Dhamar in 1937. Global Volcanism Studies. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0301-12-

[xxxviii] National Plan To Combat Desertification, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Draft 2000, http://land.cedare.int/cedare.int/files24%5CFile1675.pdf

[xxxix] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77; United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Socotra Archipelago, http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1263

[xl] Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77; "The Yemen Society for the Protection of Wildlife (YSPW) and BirdLife Middle East Division (BLMED) received funding for Planning and Creation of a Site Management Plan for Aden Wetlands within the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Environment Facility (GEF), African Eurasian Flyway (Wings Over Wetlands- WOW ) Project" Aden Wetlands Conservation Project, Wings Over Wetlands, Prepared by, Bawazir, Gamal M. July 2009

[xli] The Yemen Society for the Protection of Wildlife in conjunction with other organizations have instituted A Wings Over Wetlands (WOW) demonstration project in the wetlands. Waste, fill, and overfishing were noted. The WOW project recommendations included, Increasing awareness of the importance of Aden wetlands, controlling the collection of certain species in identified areas, ban on the use of small-mesh nets, manage fishing activities, conduct regular research and scientific studies of the protected areas. 

[xlii] RAS SHARMA PROTECTED AREA REMAINS UNPROTECTED, Wildlife Middle East News, Volume 3, Issue 2 , September 2008,  ISSN 1990-8237 

[xliii] http://www.undp.org.ye/reports/env_58512_project_document.pdf

[xliv] National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Republic of Yemen, Ministry of Water and Environment, Environment Protection Authority, Abdul Hakim Aulaiahhttp://www.cbd.int/doc/nbsap/nbsapcbw-mena-01/nbsapcbw-mena-01-ye-01-en.pdf

[xlv] Comprehensive Assessment of Election Framework, Final Report, Yemen, November 2008, Human Rights Information and Training Center, Democracy Reporting International. Funded by the Foreign Office of the Federal Republic of Germany. www.democracy-reporting.org

[xlvi] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xlvii] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xlviii] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[xlix] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[l] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation, Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[li] Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MPIC), Sector Background Info, Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC, ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77

[lii] "In a communication of 19 May 1990 addressed to the United Nations Secretary-General, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the Yemen Arab Republic and of the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen stated: "all treaties and agreements concluded between either the Yemen Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and other States and international organizations in accordance with international law which are in force on 22 May 1990 will remain in effect and international relations existing on 22 May 1990 between the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and the Yemen Arab Republic and other States will continue". As a result of this declaration, in the present document, in case of an Agreement to which both the Yemen Arab Republic and the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen were parties, the date of acceptance or signature chosen is the one which either the Yemen Arab Republic or the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen accepted/signed first." http://www.fao.org/Legal/TREATIES/004s-e.htm#note9

[liii] THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN, COMPREHENSIVE DEVELOPMENT REVIEW, ENVIRONMENT, RURAL DEVELOPMENT, WATER AND ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT

MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA REGION, THE WORLD BANK

January 21, 2000 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTYEMEN/Overview/20150250/YE-Environment.pdf; Sector Background Info Environment and Bio-diversity, MPIC ROYG website, http://www.mpic-yemen.org/new1/strategies.asp?contantmain=6&key=17&stratigy=77